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  FIRST DRAFT -- WARD FAMILY HISTORY -- (1990)


Page 3-1



CHAPTER THREE

THE WARD AND BLACKWELL FAMILIES 
OF OXFORDSHIRE



Who was William Ward, and why did he leave England? We know what the parish 
records tell us of who he was and when he was born, and we can guess at his 
circumstances. It was a bad time and place to grow up poor and in the wrong religion.

The villages were small; the entire population was small. The people worked 
predominantly in agriculture. Most worked on land they leased or rented from the 
manorial landowners, or from yeoman freeholders. Their health was generally good, by 
the standards of the time. They were well-fed except in times of economic or  natural 
disaster. Many of the average citizens could read and write, having had some years of 
schooling at the local grammar school. There was a sense of pride in being an 
Englishman, a sense of order and place at the beginning of the 17th Century. All this 
would come crashing down with the Civil War. 

England was in turmoil during the period of his youth. For a hundred years there had 
been religious strife between the Puritans, the Catholics, and the Established 
(Protestant) Church. This, combined with political competition between the Royalist 
and the Parliamentarian parties, culminated in 1642 in the English Civil War. Much of 
the fighting occurred in the county of Oxfordshire. During most of the 1640's the King, 
in effective exile from London, kept his court and military headquarters in Oxford city. 
This was only ten miles from where young William lived, and growing up in such 
circumstances must have affected his outlook. 

Even after the King was executed in 1649, and the Parliamentary party took over, 
English civilian life remained confused and stressful. The Parliamentarians were often 
Puritans, and the religious and political issues of the day were thorougly intertangled. 
The Commonwealth, under Cromwell and his son, lasted until 1660, when Charles II 
returned to England and the Royal house was restored. William Ward had already left 
England by then, and had started a family in Connecticut.

This is not a history book. You can get the flavor of the times in the PBS television 
series (imported from England) "By the Sword Divided." A book which covers the 
same issues is Ollard's This War Without an Enemy1 . (This volume also has excellent 
period illustrations.) For further background on the events leading up the war, and 
including much on the religious and political reasons for it, read Bridenbaugh'sVexed 
and Troubled Englishmen.2  For the family history you are reading, it is enough to note 
the war, and to describe its divisive effect on families and its destructive effect on 
the local economies. 

The Puritans won the civil war, but in a real sense they lost the aftermath. They were 
not a group that compromised readily, and they were forced to compromise with the 
Presbyterians from Scotland and the non-religious party of the Parliamentary 
politicians. The Parliamentary party sought primarily to limit the King's powers and to 
keep him from selling England to its enemies, and it was through their ranks that 
Oliver Cromwell advanced to become their chief general and eventually the world's 
first modern dictator. Cromwell took over by force of leadership and ruled, eventually, 
by military might. He never claimed the kingship, and when he died, government  by 
his son lasted only a little while. Tired of rule by major generals and Puritan divines, 
the people invited the old dynasty back in. 

But things were never quite the same again. The final legacy of Cromwell was the 
"glorious revolution" of 1688-90; in this period the people of England cancelled the 
employment contract of King James II and replaced him with someone they thought 
they would like better. As part of his contract the new King promised that he would not 
be quite as high-handed as his predecessor. He would not lead them into the arms of 
the Papacy. He could no longer claim to be absolutely superior to the populace.

Meanwhile, the American colonies were undergoing political upheavals of their own. 
They had survived general neglect during the war, and benefitted from Cromwell's 
policies during the Commonwealth. Now the restored King took control and sent royal 
governors in to bring them to heel. This restoration of English control was going on 
during the time William Ward was becoming a leading citizen of Middletown. It is 
from this era we get stories of Charters hidden in oak trees, and unpopular governors 
treating the colonies like private baronies. And it was in this era that the events began 
which led ultimately to our rebellion against the distant King.

William's father seems to have had little money or property. William, as the youngest 
son, could have expected to inherit little of what little there was. There was no 
financial reason to remain in England.

William was probably born, or became, a Puritan. In Connecticut he participated in the 
activities of Middletown's Congregational Church; this was the established church of 
the Puritans in America. In England he would have found himself growing up in the 
middle of the intrigues of Puritan and Parliament versus the King and the Established 
(Anglican) Church. [The fact that William's "bible" includes the Book of Common 
Prayer  makes this interpretation uncertain, since many of the Puritans held this book 
to be improper.]

We do not have a personal letter from William Ward, the emigrant, detailing why he 
left England. (Some emigrants wrote exactly this kind of letter to friends back home or 
in other colonies). The only things we do have that we know he wrote are the notes in 
his Bible, and his will3. Based on this will, surviving records from England and 
Connecticut, and a few educated guesses, we can say a number of things about his early 
life.

William Ward saw few prospects in his native village. He may have had to leave town 
in a hurry, for political and/or religious reasons. The new colonies would have seemed 
a safe hiding place and a potential utopiaQa place  where he could make his fortune 
and live out his life free from class and religious distinctions. We can read the parish 
records and find the following:


FIRST GENERATION OF WARDS OF NORTH LEIGH 

1618	Thomas Warde marries Dorothie Blackwell. These are the parents of William 
Ward, the emigrant. Dorothie was the daughter of John and Amye Blackwell. John 
Blackwell died in 1617, leaving a will (see Chapter Three). He held the lease on a 
yardland (about 30 acres) in the village lands  of North Leigh, as a tenant of the 
Perrott family, owners of the Manor.

Through John Blackwell we can trace the family back at least as early as the 1500's.

1620  Eleanor Ward, daughter of Thomas and Dorothie, is baptized.

1621  (_________) Ward, daughter of Thomas and Dorothie, is baptized. (First name 
not given.)

1622  (_________) Ward, daughter of Thomas and Dorothie, is baptized. I do not 
know why no names are given in the parish register for these two children. The listing 
is simply for a daughter in each case. There are no corresponding burial listings. The 
children may have been stillborn, or died before christening, but in that case the 
registers usually would have made some comment to that effect. However, see Frances 
and Elizabeth Warde, below.

1624  Thomas Warde, son of Thomas and Dorothie, is baptized. [died 1687?]

1627  John Ward, son of Thomas and Dorothie, is baptized. [buried 1700]

1630  Edward Ward, son of Thomas and Dorothie, is baptized.

1632  William Ward, son of Thomas and Dorothie, is baptized. William Ward is the 
emigrant to Connecticut. His name is variously spelled with or without the final "e".

1635  Susan Ward, daughter of Thomas and Dorothie, is baptized. Last child born to the 
immediate family of Thomas and Dorothie.

1643  Frances Ward, daughter of Thomas, is buried. It is possible that she was one of the 
unnamed daughters above.

1679  Thomas Ward is buried. I assume that this is Thomas Warde, the elder. The 
burial of one or more of the Thomas Wardes may still be an unsettled question. There 
is no date listed for the burial of Dorothie Warde.

1697  Elizabeth Ward is buried. Possibly the second unnamed daughter of Thomas 
Warde, Sr.

1700  John Ward is buried. There is no indication that John ever married. A John 
Warde, thought by some genealogists to have been a brother of William, is said to have 
lived in Rowley, Massachusetts before both moved to Middletown. He may  be this 
same John who died in 1700. This would mean that he had returned to England at 
some point in the late 1600's. This was a reasonably common occurance among the 
colonists, but seems unlikely in this case.

1705  Edward Ward is buried. I assume this is the Edward born in 1630, married in 1699. 
However, the evidence for this is scanty and the uncle and nephew may need to be 
interchanged. 

Further generations of Wards in England are discussed in Chapter Six and Appendix 
Eight. Other notes with discussion of possible interpretations:

1677  Anne Ward, wife of Thomas, is buried. I assume she was the wife of Thomas 
Ward, Jr. See Chapter Six.

1682  Elizabeth Ward marries Thomas Harris of Charlbury. Probably the Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Jr., born in 1652. An alternative reading is that this Elizabeth was 
one of the unnamed daughters born to Thomas Sr. in 1620 or 1621, and this is less 
likely.


OTHER WARDS IN NORTH LEIGH  -- RELATIONSHIP NOT KNOWN

1582  Elizabeth Warde marries John Kent. The Kents held land in North Leigh during 
the latter half of the 16th century. The final "e" is generally not significant, except 
that it was less used in the more Eastern counties, and most people had dropped it by 
the end of the 17th century. Elizabeth Warde is probably from a nearby village; however,
I have not been able to identify which one. It is quite possible that she was related 
to the family we are tracing.

1609  William Warde marries Joan Bathe. This William may be related to Thomas 
Warde, the father of the William who emigrated. Joan Bathe seems to be the daughter 
of Vincent Bathe, of Cassington, a nearby village. 
     Alternatively, there was a Joan, daughter of Vincent Bath, born in Kirtlington in 
1601; but this seems too early. However: Vincent Bath married, 1581, Francis or Frises 
Bath. They had children Richard, 1593, Francys, 1595, and Edward, 1598.4

1611  William Ward, son of William and Joan is baptized. This is the only known child 
of William and Joan.

1707  Joane Warde, widow, is buried. See below. I consider it unlikely that this is the 
woman who married William in 1609; she would have to have been 115 years old at 
her death. There are presumably missing death and marriage notices relevant here. She 
may have been the widow of one of the Thomas Wards listed below, or of one of his 
brothers. Or, she may have been a daughter of William and Joane, or of one of the 
Thomas Wards.

It would be nice to know, for a start, how many Thomas Wardes there were, and whom 
they married. The people of this period did have some mobility, and could easily move 
between nearby villages. While the distances moved were not great, the loss of records 
over the years, and the questionable completeness of those records that do exist, make 
detailed determinations highly improbable. The family seems to have disappeared in 
the North Leigh area by the 1740's, but probable descendants can be traced in the local 
area at least up to the 1850's (see Chapter Six).

We can guess that the Elizabeth Warde who married John Kent in 1582 was a resident 
of a nearby town. There was no shortage of Ward families nearby. She MAY have been 
a member of the family which eventually moved into North Leigh; at this time I have 
no way of knowing. The Kent family had been in North Leigh for at least the previous 
twenty years; they appear in the manorial tenants' list analyzed in an article in 
OXONIENSIA5. It was a reasonably common practice for a bride and groom from 
different villages to be married in the church of the village of the bride. I assume this 
defined the bride's family as the one putting on the wedding festivities. Some parish 
registers indicate when the marriage participant is from another village; some do not; 
and some are quite inconsistent. The absence of such a notation here does not prove 
anything.

The William Warde who married Joan Bathe in 1609 may represent a similar situation, 
except that here neither seems to have been born in North Leigh. Bathe is a relatively 
uncommon name, but there are many of that name in the neighboring village of 
Cassington. Records there indicate the birth of a Joane, daughter of Vincent, in 
[[_____]]; this would make her the right age to be the one who married William 
Warde. William may have been living in or near North Leigh, or he may have been 
working there at the time and arranged to work there after his marriage. Within two 
years they had a son, William; from that point they disappear from the parish register. 
William Ward is shown as a signatory to the Protestation Oath in 1642, but is not listed 
in the Hearth Tax of 1665.6  The only further associated entry in the parish register is 
the death of Joane Warde, widow, in 1707. While it is tempting to assign this Joane as 
the wife of that William, both her necessary age at death (115-120 years), and the 
absence of any further notes on William or his son, make it most probable that William 
and Joane Warde left North Leigh some time after 1642. I have looked for a likely 
continuation of the family, but have not found it in nearby towns or villages; 
identification further away would have to be considered tenuous at best. If this Joane 
(bur. 1707) is not the widow of this William, then identifying who she was becomes 
unlikely.

With the marriage of Thomas Warde and Dorothie Blackwell in 1618 we come to the 
parents of the William Warde who emigrated and began the Ward family in America. I 
have not, as yet, found the birth record for Thomas Warde, his father. What I have 
found is a number of possible Wardes named Thomas, but none of the nearby ones 
were born in the right period and none of the ones of the right age were born near 
North Leigh. If he had been born in North Leigh, the parish record should have listed 
him.

Since we believe that Thomas moved into North Leigh from somewhere else, the 
questions become ones of when he moved to the village, and how far did he come? All 
we know for certain is that he had taken up residency by 1618 or shortly thereafter. It 
is possible that he had moved there as a child, apprenticed to a craftsman or hired out 
to a farmer. He may have been working as a servant in the manor hall. In any of these 
cases, he would have had opportunity to meet Dorothie Blackwell in town, on a market 
day or in church. It is worth noting that Dorothie's father had died shortly before her 
marriage, and that she was presumably living with  her brothers. (For more about the 
Blackwells see Chapter 3.)

If Thomas was living in some other village than North Leigh, then his opportunities to 
meet Dorothie would have been limited mostly to church, or to market days and 
holiday festivities. A courtship of this kind would have to take place within walking 
distance, so it is likely that he was born in one of the villages within a short distance
of North Leigh. 

We have no record of his birth. This is not that surprising, since the records for that 
area are not complete. While the town of Whitney has parish registers beginning in 
1551, and Hanborough's begin in 1560, the records for Combe begin only in 1646 and for 
Cogges in 1653. Furthermore, in other sources I have found the names of people who 
are known to have been living in a town or village, but who do not show up in the 
parish register. For example, a Thomas Warde, shoemaker, served as wardsman in 
Witney in 1578., but is not mentioned at all in the Witney parish register. The Witney 
parish registers are extant from 1551, so we must make the assumption that his birth 
and burial records are listed, if at all, in the registers for some other locality--
perhaps one like Cogges for which the earliest volumes have disappeared. It seems likely 
that he lived in Witney for some period, but did not marry there or had no children 
during this time. That is, nothing happened to him or his family which would merit a 
notation in the parish register. 


EARLIER REFERENCES TO WARDES IN THE NORTH LEIGH REGION

Since it appears that the family moved into the area from some other locality, we wish 
to find some still-earlier ancestors who can be identified with them. So far I have not 
been able to do so with any level of certainty, but I hope that further research in 
places like the Public Record Office will fill in the gaps. 

What we know about the situation is as follows:

1.  John Ward alias Clarke filed his will in 1545, in the village of Cogges. I have no 
indication of what the alias refers to (stepson, godson, changed for purposes of 
adoption--all were common reasons to use this form). He refers to his wife Alis, and to 
his god-daughter Agnes Bryan, but  no other Wards (or Clarkes, for that matter) are 
named. Cogges is the village just to the west of North Leigh.

2.  Anne Warde, daughter of Thomas Warde, was born in nearby Glympton in 1618. No 
other Wards are listed at all. Our Thomas was married in 1618, and that was also the 
year that his daughter Eleanor was born, so this is presumably  another Thomas Ward. 
Unless, of course, one of the records refers to the old style of dating and one of them 
to the new.

3.  Numerous Wards are known to have lived in the nearby village of (Long) Combe, 
but none of them are recorded before 1636, when Richard Ward filed his will. The 
parish registers date only from 1646; the earlier volumes have disappeared. Richard 
refers in his will to his sister Joane (married to _____ Davis) and his sister's son and 
daughter; to his brother George, and to his brother's son Rychard; and to his brothers 
John and Edward Warde. There seem to be no Thomas or William Wards among 
them. These Wards may have come from Little Horwood, Buckinghamshire; a family 
of Wards had lived there from at least the 1550's, and they are mentioned in the will of 
John Ward of Long Combe (died 1650).7

4.  The town of Witney had many Wards during the late 16th and throughout the 17th 
and 18th centuries. One of them, a shoemaker named Thomas Ward, was sworn as a 
wardsman in 1578. The Witney parish register, dating from 1551, does not mention this 
person at all, and I think it likely that he was living in a nearby village. The register 
does include notes on a George Ward, a tinker, who was cited for unpaid debts in 1584, 
1586, and 1587,8 and had children James (1592) and Margaret (1594).9 None of the given 
names of the family lines of Thomas or William include a George, a James, or a 
Margaret, so it is unlikely that there is any close connection. I have no other references
to Wards in Witney before 1626.

5.  The militia Musters of 1542-5 list a Thomas Ward for South Leigh (which is only a 
few miles south of North Leigh's town center. They also include a "Thomas Wad" in 
Bampton, and a John Warde for Headington (near Oxford). There is no listing for a 
Ward from Witney. This does not mean there was no one in Witney named Ward, but 
only that no adult Ward was mustered during that period. However, the parish 
registers (see paragraph above) list no Wards before 1592.

I believe that the Thomas Ward of South Leigh in 1542-45 is the father of the man, who 
became a wardsman in Witney in 1578.  His grandson or great-grandson moved to 
North Leigh in or before 1618. So far he is the likeliest candidate for general ancestor
to the Wards, but I have no detailed proof as yet. His relationship--if any--to George 
is also unknown.


OTHER NOTES

None of the Wards of North Leigh are listed in the Hearth Tax returns from 1665, 
unless it is in the entries for Stanton Harcourt. These include both a William and a 
Francis Ward (William paid no tax, due to his poverty). The parish of Cogges was 
included under Stanton Harcourt until 1653, and it is possible that there was some 
confusion regarding their home village if they lived in a house near the parish 
boundaries. The Stanton Harcourt parish register begins in 1568, and includes no 
baptisms of anyone named Ward before 1700. The Stanton Harcourt Hearth Tax list10 
and other tax records11 include also a Thomas Wood and John Wood, and confusion of 
these names is a possibility. However, it should be noted that the Wood family goes 
back many years in Stanton Harcourt, and is definitely not the same as the Wardes.

The matter of wives and widows is also complex. We have notations of five women 
who married Wardes (also see Chapter Six):
    
Anne, wife of Thomas, died 1677     
Mary Warde, widow, died 1685          
Dorothie Warde, wife of Thomas Sr., died (____)?     
Joane Warde, widow, died 1707     
(_____) Warde, wife of Thomas, died 1730.

I'm not completely certain how to associate them with their respective husbands, and 
we may never be able to fill in the unknown data indicated by parentheses and 
underlines.

FAMILY CHART SUMMARY

The following section covers the first generations of the Ward family in the standard 
format of the New England Historic Genealogical Society (NEHGS). The first 
generations have a purely numeric entry in the left-hand margin. Some letter/number 
codes are for computer use and will eventually be sorted and replaced by numbers. 
Underlined names in this section are in my direct line. See Chart 3a for the chart of the 
family in the North Leigh region.

E.  JOHN WARD alias CLARKE of Cogges, Oxfordshire, England. Born possibly circa. 
1480; will recorded 1545. Married ALIS [------] (still alive in 1545). Had god-daughter 
Agnes Bryan. Possibly the father or grandfather of Thomas Warde, below [E].

D.  THOMAS WARDE (?), of South Leigh, Oxfordshire, England. Alive 1542-45. Born 
probably before 1525.
Children, surname Ward:

C.	i.	THOMAS (?) 

C.  THOMAS WARDE (?), of South Leigh or Cogges. Presumed born circa 1550. 
Shoemaker in Witney in 1578.
Children, surname Ward:

B.	i.	THOMAS (?)

B.  THOMAS WARD (?), of South Leigh or Cogges. Presumed born circa 1570.
Children, surname Ward:

	i. 	WILLIAM (?), born ca. 1590 or before; died sometime after 1611; married,
9 October 1609, at North Leigh, JOAN BATHE, probably daughter of Vincent Bathe of 
Kirtlington, Oxfordshire. One known child, son William, born  21 December 1611.
A.	ii.	THOMAS


ALL OF THE ABOVE MUST BE CONSIDERED SPECULATIVE


A.  THOMAS WARD, of North Leigh, born ca. 1600 or before; died probably 27 April, 
1679; married, 1 June 1618, DOROTHIE BLACKWELL, daughter of John and Amye 
Blackwell of North Leigh. (See below, and Appendix Eight on the Blackwell family).
Children, surname Ward:

	i.	ELEANOR, bapt. 21 October 1618
	ii.	[______], (female), bapt. 2 April 1620
	iii.	[______], (female), bapt. 3 March 1621
MM1.	iv.	THOMAS
	v.	JOHN, bapt. 2 December 1627
	vi.	EDWARD, bapt. 31 January 1630; buried (probably) 17 September 1675
1.	vii.	WILLIAM, emigrant to America
	viii.	SUSAN, bapt. 20 (?) June 1635


MM1.  THOMAS WARD, of North Leigh, Oxfordshire. Brother of the emigrant. See 
Chapter Six for discussion of Thomas and all of the family that remained in England.

1.  (ENSIGN) WILLIAM WARD, of North Leigh, Oxfordshire, and Middletown, 
Connecticut, born 16 August 1632, in North Leigh; died 28 March 1690, in Middletown; 
married (first wife), 8 June 1658, SARAH PHELPS (born 1636 (?); died 9 July 1659); 
married (second wife), 28 March 1660, PHEBE FENNER, (chr. 5 January 1634; died 1 
September 1691). 

William Ward emigrated to America in the early or middle 1650's. In the following 
chapter I talk about what he found there and how he and his family prospered.



THE BLACKWELL FAMILY OF OXFORDSHIRE

We can trace the Blackwell family back one generation earlier and forward at least one. 
In the parish register for North Leigh, we find the following information:

1600  Baptism of Thomas Blackwell, son of John and Amye

1602  Baptism of William Blackwell, son of John and Amye

1617  Burial of John Blackwell

1618  Marriage of Dorothie Blackwell and Thomas Warde

1629  Baptism of William Blakwell, son of Thomas and [______]

1629  Burial of William Blakwell, son of Thomas and [______]

1630  Baptism of Jane Blakwell, daughter of William and [______]

1633  Baptism of William Blackwell, son of William and [______]

1634  Marriage of Anne Blackwell and Hardwick Carpenter by banns

1642  Baptism of Thomas Blackwell, son of William and [______]

1642  Burial of Thomas Blackwell, son of William and [______]

1642  Baptism of Presilla Blackwell, daughter of Thomas and [______]

1659  Burial of Thomas Blakwell

1678  Burial of Thomas Blackwell

1679  Mariage of widow [______] Blackwell, of Northleigh, and William Compton of 
North Leigh.

1680  Burial of William Blackwell

1681  Burial of Priscilla Blackwell, widow

1689  Burial of Jane Blackwell of Charlebury


John Blackwell

John Blackwell died in 1617, leaving a will. He held the lease on a yardland (about 30 
acres) in the village lands  of North Leigh, as a tenant of the Perrotts. See note 5.


John and Amye Blackwell had at least three children, Thomas and William, who are 
named here, and Dorothie. It is likely that Anne Blackwell was also a child of theirs. 
Thomas married Priscilla [------] and had children William (who died in infancy), and 
Presilla. William married [------] and had children Jane (died unmarried at age 59), 
William, and Thomas (who died in infancy).

John Blackwell's 1617 will exists and will some day be included in this section. 


B.  JOHN BLACKWELL, of North Leigh, Oxfordshire, born probably about 1570; buried 7 
December 1617; married (somewhere other than North Leigh) AMYE [------]. Probably 
moved to North Leigh about 1599.
Children, surname Blackwell:
A.	i.	DOROTHIE, probably born 1595-1598
LL1	ii.	THOMAS, bapt. 20 April 1600
LL2	iii.	WILLIAM, bapt. 7 December 1602
LL3.	iv.	ANNE, bapt. probably about 1604-8

A.  DOROTHIE BLACKWELL, probably born 1595-1598; married, 1 June 1618, in North 
Leigh, Oxfordshire,  THOMAS WARD. See above.

LL1.  THOMAS BLACKWELL, baptized 20 April 1600; buried 27 December 1659 or 22 
November 1678; married Presilla [------], died 5 July 1681. 
Children, surname Blackwell:
LL4.	i.	WILLIAM, bapt. 29 March 1629; buried 23 May 1629
LL5.	ii.	PRESILLA, bapt. 2 July 1642

LL2.  WILLIAM BLACKWELL, baptized 7 December 1602; buried 30 January 1680; 
married [------].
Children, surname Blackwell:
LL6.	i.	JANE, bapt. 17 January 1630; probably did not marry; lived in Charlbury; 
was buried in North Leigh, 9 December 1689
LL7.	ii.	WILLIAM, bapt. 1 September 1633
LL8.	iii.	THOMAS, bapt. 14 March 1642; buried 12 May 1642

LL3.  ANNE BLACKWELL, baptized circa 1604-8, married by banns, 15 January 1634, 
Hardwick Carpenter. Children not yet traced.

It is not yet clear when Thomas Blackwell, son of John, died; there were two Thomas 
Blackwells who died, in 1659 and 1678 respectively. The first may have been a brother of 
the elder John. On the other hand, Thomas' firstborn son was probably named Thomas, 
and we have no record of one by that name; it is possible that the one who died in 1678 
(or even 1659) was that son.

I don't know who the widow Blackwell was who married William Compton in 1679. If 
it was Presilla, widow of Thomas, then the register would probably have listed her as 
Presilla Compton when she died in 1681. Perhaps William Compton died very quickly, 
or perhaps the marriage was annulled for some reason. More work is needed. 


ENDNOTES


1 Ollard, Richard, This War Without An Enemy, Atheneum, New York, 1976.
2 Bridenbaugh, Carl, Vexed and Troubled Englishmen 1590-1642,  Oxford University Press, 
	New York, 1968.
3 Mainwaring, op.cit.
4 see LibV8p19; from IGI for Oxfordshire, I believe
5 Schumer, B. "An Elizabethan Survey of North Leigh, Oxfordshire" in Oxoniensia for 
	1975, p. 309 ff.
6 Publications of the Oxfordshire Record Society: Vol XX (19YY), p. ZZ
7  Original will Ms. 71/3/5 at the Oxfordshire County Record Office; 1650.
8 Calendar of the Court Books of the Borough of Witney 1538-1610, Oxfordshire Record 
	Society, Volume 54, pages 106 and others.
9  Witney parish register at OCRO
10 ORS Vol XX (op. cit.)
11 E179/xx/xx at Public Record Office